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- United Nations Development Programme - UNDP
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- USAID Economic Security Program
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A world without poverty is the number one goal of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Yet, poverty risks have been exacerbated globally in recent years, due to both the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russian war on Ukraine. Researchers currently estimate that between 760 and 873 million people around the world will be living in extreme poverty in 2022.
Throughout history, societies have used socio-biological markers, such as gender and age, to assign social positions, prescribe gender and age-based roles, and distribute scarce resources. In the social sciences, scholars tended to look separately at how gender and age shaped the human experience, social roles, and resource allocation.
On February 24th, 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine. This event not only marked the collapse of a painstakingly built global security architecture and destroyed the lives and livelihoods of millions of civilians in the heart of Europe, it also put the world on the brink of the largest nuclear, humanitarian, and ecological catastrophe since WWII.
The emergence of GVC, global value chains, around more than two decades ago transformed the way economists think about countries’ comparative advantage and specialization in production. It has also transformed the understanding of what it takes for a country to be successfully integrated into world trade networks and derive maximum benefit from global trade.
Both Georgia and Armenia have been subject to negative external economic shocks, particularly through remittances and exports, in 2014 and 2015, yet the macroeconomic adjustment of the countries appears to have been different. While the GDP growth of both countries remained relatively stable at around 3% in both years, the exchange rate of the Georgian Lari (GEL) depreciated by a 29% in 2014-2015 compared to 15% for the Armenian Dram (AMD).
A dramatic y/y decline (44%) in Georgia’s 2015 exports to Armenia was the subject of a study by ISET-PI and the German Economic Team (GET). Our goal was to understand the extent to which this slump resulted from Armenia’s agreement to join the Eurasian Economic Union in 2014 (as part of this agreement, Armenia applied new trade barriers on imports from non-EEU countries in 2015).