The topic of women and power roles in academia is an area of significant interest and concern in contemporary society. While strides have been made in promoting gender equality in higher education, academic institutions continue to encounter issues with representation and empowerment for women in various positions of authority and influence. The policy paper delves into the dynamics surrounding women's participation and progression in academia, shedding light on the challenges they face, the progress achieved, and the potential pathways to further enhance their presence in positions of power. We discuss the empirical evidence from the South Caucasus countries, showcasing both the progress and the substantial gaps in equality for women in academia, including a cross-country analysis of gender gaps in scientific output. In particular, our analysis indicates that gender gaps in scientific output are both general and subject-specific, and, as the case of Georgia reveals, include even subject areas where women make up the majority of publishing authors.